A Special Report from

The Foundation for Democracy in Iran



Alleged Victims of Iranian government "hit squads,"1979-1996

as compiled from public sources by the

Foundation for Democracy in Iran

Copyright© 1996

Distribute with attribution

Appendix to Action Memorandum 011

Released: May 6, 1996



Explanatory Note:

This data base has been compiled from public sources and includesonly those terrorist attacks for which there have been publicaccusations of Iranian government involvement, either by lawenforcement officials or in the media.

In addition to the attacks we have listed, the Democratic Party ofIranian Kurdistan (KDPI) claims that 26 party members or sympathizerswere assassinated by Iranian government attacks occuring in IraqiKurdistan since 1994 and scores more in Iran itself. Additionalattacks inside Iraq have also been claimed by the People's Mujahidin(PMOI). The nature of these attacks could not be confirmed byindependent sources, although allegations that they carried out byIranian government agents appear credible.


Total killed: 85 Total wounded: 54


12/7/79 Paris, France Shahriar Moustapha Shafiq Monarchist Anephew of the former Shah. Responsibility for the killing was openlyclaimed by Ayatollah Khalkhali in Tehran, who says his "Islamiccombattants" had also wanted to kill Princess Ashraf, the Shah's twinsister, who was living in Paris.

7/18/80 Paris, France N/A Monarchist A failed assassinationattempt against Shahpour Bakhtiar kills a neighbor and a Frenchpoliceman, and wounds a third person. The hit team was led by aLebanese Christian, Anis Naccache, acting on a fatwa signed byAyatollah Khomeini. Naccache was sentenced to life in prison on 10March 1982 but freed on July 27, 1990 when pardoned by PresidentMitterrand. Iran had pressured France for his release by takinghostages in Lebanon and by orchestrating a bombing campaign in Parisin September 1986.

7/22/81 Washington, DC (USA) Ali Akbar Tabatabai NA The formerpress spokesman at the Iranian embassy in Washington, who became anoutspoken opponent of the new regime, was shot at point blank rangeby a self-avowed Iranian government hitman, David Belfield, who posedas a postman delivering a special delivery package to his home inBethesda, MD

1/1/82 Manilla, Philippines Shahrokh Missaghi Exact date ofkilling unknown.

1/1/82 Istanbul, Turkey Colonel Ahmad Hamed No date given.Possible confusion with Ahmad Hamed Monfared, killed in 1986.

4/4/82 Mainz, Germany N/A A young German woman is killed,and 18 Iranian opposition students are wounded, during an attack byIranian agents working out of a government-sponsored cultural centeragainst a dormitory at the University of Mainz in april 1982.

6/6/82 India Chahram Mirani Seriously wounded during anattack in June

8/8/82 Karachi, Pakistan Ahmad Zolanvar Exact dateunknown.

9/9/82 India Abdol-Amir Rahdar Exact date unknown.

2/2/83 Manilla, Philippines Esfandiar Rahimi Exact dateunknown.

2/7/84 Paris, France General Gholam AliOveissi Monarchists The former head of Military Governor of Tehranwas gunned down on the sidewalk in front of his home on the rue dePassy, along with his brother, Gholam Hossein Oveissi. Responsibilityfor the killings was claimed by Islamic Jihad and by theRevolutionary Organization of Iran for Liberation and Reform. MassoudHendi, who was then the Paris bureau chief of Islamic Republic ofIran Broadcastig (IRIBI) and was later indicted in connection withthe Bakhtiar murder, was briefly detained as a material witness.

8/16/85 Istanbul, Turkey Colonel Behrouz Shahverdilou NationalMovement of Resistance (NAMIR) A former army officer, close toBakhtiar.

9/9/85 Karachi, Pakistan M. Mirmanoute Balouch Former memberof parliament from Balutchistan.

12/23/85 Instanbul, turkey Colonel Hadi Azizmoradi NA Killed atthe entrance of the house where he was a guest.

1/16/86 Hamburg, West Germany Ali Akbar Mohamadi NA Formerpersonal pilot of Rafsanjani, who had fled Iran.

8/19/86 London (UK) Bijan Fazeli NA

10/24/86 Istambul, Turkey Ahmad Hamed Monfared Shot by twopeople in front of a primary school while waiting for a bus. Had beena bodyguard to the Shah. The Turkish police have identified Iranianagents as responsible.

12/12/86 Pakistan Vali Mohamad Van Exact date unknown.

7/7/87 Pakistan Faramarz Akai

7/7/87 Pakistan Ali Reza Pourchafizadeh Two separate attacksin Pakistan against Iranian refugees in July left three persons deadand 23 others wounded. Other known fatality was Faramaz Akai.

7/7/87 London (UK) Amir Hossein Amir-Parviz Monarchist One ofthe Shah's former ministers, Amir-Parviz was seriously injured butnot killed when a bomb exploded in his car.

7/12/87 Vienna, Austria Hamid Reza Chitgar Iranian LaborParty Worked at Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France;.Disappeared 19 May, 1987; body discovered in July in Vienna.

7/25/87 Istambul, turkey Mohamad-Hassan Mansouri Shot by twoassassins in obscure circumstances while in the company of an Iraqidiplomat, Behman Fadil. The assassins escaped in white Mercedesregistered to the Iraqi consulate in istanbul; but a ballistics examshowed the same murder weapon was used to hit Colonel Azizmoradi inDec. 1986

8/10/87 Geneva, Switzerland Ahmad Moradi-Talebi A Coloneland pilot (deserter) in the Iranian Air force, gunned down near theHotel Edelweiss. The assassins left a blue baseball cap behind them,as a signature.

10/2/87 Wembley, Great Britain Mohamed AliTavakoli-Nabavi NA Killed with youngest son, Noureddin, outside ofhome. Lived in Britain since 1979 with refugee status. Responsibilityclaimed by a group calling itself the Islamic RevolutionaryGuards.

10/10/87 Paris, France Behrouz Bagheri Killed when his shopis fire-bombed.

10/10/87 Pakistan N/A Exact date unknown. A hotel whereIranian opposition members were staying is fire-bombed, killing oneperson and wounding another. The Pakistan police accused Iran'sPasdaran, or Revolutionary Guards.

10/10/87 Istanbul, Turkey Abdol HassanModjtahed-Zadeh Kidnapped in October 1987, presumed dead.

12/12/87 Turkey Javad Haeri Exact date and place unknown.

10/11/88 Erzeroum, Turkey Abdol Hassan Mojtahedzadeh (aka Sadiqel Hassani) PMOI Found bound and gagged in the trunk of a car withdiplomatic plates traced to the Istanbul consulate by Customsofficials. The occupants, five Iranian diplomats, were attempting tocross into Iran. He was the PMOI represenative to Turkey.

10/25/88 Ankara, Turkey Abdul Ghani Bedawi Saudiintelligence 2nd secretary at embassy, believed to be intelligenceagent. Gunned down by an unknown assaillant. Iranian-paid hitmanarrested in 3/96 confesses to the killing on orders from Iran

12/12/88 Karachi, Pakistan N/A Balouch An armed man opens fireon Iranian refugees waiting in line in front of the headquarters ofthe United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Karachi, killingone person and wounding five others.

12/27/88 Karachi, Pakistan Hassan al-Amri Saudiintelligence Suspected Saudi intelligence agent, gunned down by anunknown assaillant. A Turkish hitman. Iranian-paid hitman arrested in3/96 confesses to the killing on orders from Iran

1/4/89 Bangkok, Thailand Saleh Abdullah al-Maliki Saudiintelligence Third secretary at the Saudi embassy embassy inBangkok. Responsibility for the killing claimed by the al-HijazIslamic Jihad, an Iranian-backed Shiite opposition group in SaudiArabia.

5/4/89 Dubai, UAE Colonel Attaollah Bay-Ahmad Flag of FreedomOrganization Killed in his room at the Hotel Astoria, within hoursof arriving in Dubai, by an assassin armed with a pistol equiped witha silencer. He had been on an intelligence mission to establishcontact with an opposition network inside Iran.

7/13/89 Vienna, Austria Abdel Rahman Ghassemlou(Qassemlou) KDPI Killed along with his deputy, Abdallah GhaderiAzar, and Fadel Mala Mahmoud Rasoul, a Kurdish intellectual living inVienna, during negotiations with Iranian government emissaries, by apistol equipped with a silencer. The presumed assassin took refuge inthe Iranian embassy in Vienna. Afrter briefly being questioned by theAustrian police, he was allowed to return to Tehran.

8/23/89 Cyprus Bahman Djavadi NA

9/9/89 Cyprus Gholam Kechavarz Failed assassinationattempt leaves Kecharz without the use of both legs. He later dies ofhis wounds.

10/16/89 Ankara, Turkey Abdurrahman Shrewi Saudiintelligence Saudi military attaché in Ankara. Killed by abomb placed underneath his car, which exploded just before he arrivedat his office at the embassy, severing both his legs. He subsequentlydied of his wounds.

11/1/89 Beirut, Lebanon Ali al-Marzuq Saudi Last remainingSaudi diplomat in Beirut, 53-years old. Killed outside his home inWest Beirut. Responsibility claimed by Islamic Jihad, theIranian-backed military wing of Hezbollah.

2/1/90 Bangkok, Thailand Abdalrahman al-Basri Saudiintelligence Gunned down along with two other colleagues, FahdAbdallah al-Bahli, and Ahmad Abdallah al-Sayf. All three aresuspected Saudi intelligence agents.

2/2/90 Taftan, Pakistan Haj Baloutch-Khan Exact dateunknown.

3/14/90 Istanbul, Turkey Hossein Mir-Abedini (aka RezaAkhavanjam) PMOI A Mujahidin representative to Turkey and twoIranians were ambushed en route to the Istanbul airport, but allsurvived. Tehran radio [falsely] announced the same day thatthe head of the PMOI Foreign relations department, MohammedMohadessine, had been killed in the attack.

4/24/90 Geneva, Switzerland Kassem Radjavi PMOI Shot as he wasdriving to his home i the suburbs of Geneva by a well-orchestratedhit team. The Swiss police accused 13 persons in the attack, all ofwhom had travelled to Geneva on direct flights from Tehran and whowere bearing official Iranian government passports.

8/15/90 Istanbul, Turkey Ahmad Kashefpour Ex KDPI

9/6/90 Stockholm, Sweden Effat Ghazi-Mohamad


KPDI The wife of a Kurdish opposition figure, and daughter ofGhazi-Mohamad, founder of KDPI. She died when opening a letter bombapparently addressed to her husband.

10/10/90 Turkey Gholamreza Nakhai Exact date and placeunknown.

10/23/90 Paris, France Cyrus Elahi Flag of FreedomOrganization Gunned down before dawn in front of his apartment , 8rue Bourdelle, Paris 15.

4/18/91 Paris, France Abdel Rahman Boroumand NationalResistance Movement (NAMIR) Knifed in the hall of his building inthe 7th district of Paris, by an unidentified assailant. Some claimhe may have been murdered because of gambling debts, but French judgeJean-Louis Bruguiere believes he was killed by Iranian governmentagents.

5/5/91 Soleimanieh, Iraq Safiollah Soleimanpour Killed alongwith an unnamed brother. The Iranian government admits to thekilling. Exact date unknown.

7/7/91 Milan, Italy Alberto Capriolo Italian translator ofSalman Rushdie is wounded in an attack, but survives. Exact dateunknown.

7/12/91 Tokyo, Japan Hitoshi Igarashi Translator of SalmanRushdie Rushdie's Japanese translator is killed in Tokyo. Anassassination attempt against his Italian translator was committed onJuly 3, 1991, wounding the translator.

8/6/91 Suresnes, France Shahpour Bakhtiar NAMIR Discoveredknifed to death at home by his son, a French police inspector, 36hours after a visit by a supporter and two friends. Killed with himwas Katibeh Fallouch, his personal secretary. One of the assassins islater arrested in Switzerland and extradicted to France, where heturns out to be an Iranian government agent. The supporter whointroduced him to Bakhtiar was a mole and fled the country before hecould be apprehended.

8/7/91 Paris, France Jawad Mehrani Iranian government Armsdealer believed linked to Iranian government, in process ofnegotiating large helicopter purchase from Aerospatiale. He waskilled within 24 hours of Bakhtiar. Some police sources speculate hemay have been eliminated by the same hit team because he was aware ofdetails of the Bakhtiar murder.

6/4/92 Istanbul, Turkey Akbar Ghorbani (aka MansourAmini) PMOI Abducted on June 4; body found on June 16 with itsfingernails pulled out and genitals mutilated, in a shallow grave.Police found explosives in two cars he had been using. Turkishfundamentalists confessed they had been paid by Iranian intelligenceto carry out the kidnapping.

8/7/92 Bonn, Germany Feridoun Farokhzad[Farouchsad] Opposition Knifed to death in his apartment inBonn. Exiled since 1979, he worked as a singer, actor and poet, andwas associated with the opposition in exile.

8/8/92 Frankfurt, Germany Homayoun Moghaddam Iran Nation'sParty Wounded by knife when three Iranians tried to break into hisapartment to assassinate him.

9/17/92 Berlin Sadegh Sharaf-Kindi PDKI Gunned dow n alongwith 3 colleagues at the Mykonos, a Greek restaurant in Berlin. Hesucceeded Qassemlou as head of DPIK. The others were Fattah Abduli, aKDPI European representative, Homayoun Ardalan, the KDPIrepresentative to Germany, and Nuri Dehkurdi, a translator. Weaponsfound by police included an Israeli-made Uzi, a Spanish pistol, and a"Llama" pistol with silencer. In March 1996, the German FederalProsecutor issued an international arrest warrant for Iranianintelligence Minister Ali Fallahian for having ordered thekillings.

12/26/92 Istambul, turkey Major Abbas Gholizadeh Kidnapped onDec. 26 by mermbers of Islamic Action, a Turkish fundamentalist groupfinanced by Iran. In late Jan. 1994, the leader of the group, MehmetAli Bilici, admits to having received more than $37,500 for thekidnapping and to having turned him over to Iranian intelligenceagents, who are believed to have interrogated him, tortured him, andkilled him. He'd been a bodyguard of the Shah.

1/1/93 Germany Ayatollah Mehdi Haeri Escapes assassinationattempt. An Iranian government agent, Fakhrodine Zalikhani, isarrested. Exact date unknown.

1/24/93 Ankara, Turkey Ugur Mumcu Prominent Turkishjournalist, who denounced Iranian subversion in Turkey. A car bombexploded in his car at 13:26, in front of his home at 63, Karli Sokakin Ankara. Prime suspects include members of Islamic Action , anIranian-backed fundamentalist group in Turkey; and three Iraniandiplomats.

3/16/93 Rome Mohammed Hussein Nagdi PMOI Gunned down in hiscar by assassins riding on a motorbike in a Rome street. He was thelocal representative of the National Council of Resistance, a frontorganization for the Massud Radjavi's Mujahidin. He served asmilitary attaché to Rome for the Islamic Republic until 1982.In July 1996, the Italian prosecutor asked the Islamic Republicembassy in Rome to lift diplomatic immunity on an individual servingat the Rome embassy at the time of the assassination.

8/8/93 Istanbul, Turkey Mohammad Ghaderi KDPI Ghaderi waskidnapped and found dead in Turkey in August 1993, allegedly byIranian-controlled agents

8/28/93 Ankara, turkey Mehran Bahram Azadfar KDPI

8/28/93 Ankara, Turkey Mohamad Ghadiri

10/11/93 Oslo, Norway William Nygaard Salman Rushdie TheNorwegian publisher of Salman Rushdie is shot three times from behindas he is leaving his home, but survives.

1/1/94 Sweden Aoubakr Hedayati KDPI Wounded by a letterbomb. Exact date unknown.

1/4/94 Corum, Central Turkey Taha Kirmench (Kermanch) OneIranian was arrested after three gunmen killed this Iranian Kurdishactivist in the central Turkish city of Corum

1/29/94 Beirut, Lebanon Naeb Umran Maaitah Jordanian ForeignMinistry Maaitah, the number two diplomat at Jordan's embassy inBeirut, was gunned down in Syrian-controlled West Beirut. Five dayslater, Jordan expelled 21 Iranian diplomats from Amman. Iranianintelligence is suspected of having planned his killing, which wascarried out by elements from the pro-Iranian Hezbollah.

1/29/94 Syraee, Turkey Nasser Hadji Rashidi Iranian Kurdinjured in an attack along with his sister, Mahtab Hadji Rashidi.

6/24/94 Copenhagen, Denmark Mollah Osman Amini An IranianKurdish refugee, found dead in his apartment in copenhage.

11/12/94 Bucharest, Romania Mohammed Ali Assadi The 38-yearold Assadi was killed when three assailants burst into his apartmenton Saturday night, Nov. 12, and thrust a two-edged Ninja sword intohis back. His wife reportedly said one of them was listed among theIranian embassy staff.

5/17/95 Baghdad N/A PMOI Two senior PMOI officials killed,one wounded, in Baghdad attack on a Mujahidin vehicle. Mujahidinblamed "terrorist diplomats" in the Iranian embassy in Baghdad.

6/5/95 Sulaymaniyah, Iraq N/A Kurdish "Toilers" Party(Komelah) Two members of an Iranian Kurdish group were gunned downin Iraqi Kurdistan by Iranian government agents, according to theState Department's 4/96 yearly report on terrorism

7/10/95 Baghdad Hussein Adidi PMOI Gunned down with two otherMujahidin officials, Ibrahim Salimi and Yarali Karatbar, by killersidentified by the Mujahidin as "agents of the Iranian regime." Iraq'sForeign Ministry summoned the Iranian charge in Baghdad to protestthe killings.

9/17/95 Paris, France Hashem Abdollahi NAMIR Murdered whenunknown assailants burst into his father's apartment in anassassination attack, not a robbery. Hashem was the son of DavoudAbdollahi, the chief witness in the Bakhtiar murder trial. The StateDepartment's yearly report on terrorism speculated his murder "mayhave been an anti dissident attack."

2/20/96 Istanbul, Turkey Zahra Rajabi NCR (PMOI) A seniormember of the National Council of Resistance, Ms Rajabi was killed byfive bullets to the head fired at point blank range when gunmen burstinto her Istanbul apartment. Killed with her was Mujahidinsympathiser Abdul-Ali Moradi. PMOI leader Rajavi blamed the Iranianembassy in Turkey, and issued a statement on 4/23/96 naming fourIranian diplomats for their involvement in the murders. The diplomatswere first identified by Reza Barzgar Ma'ssoumi, a self-avowed SAVAMAagent arrested by Turkish police in March 1996.

3/4/96 Karachi (Pakistan) Molavi Abdul-MalekMollahzadeh Balouch The 45-year old son of Iran's most prominentSunni cleric was murdered by two gunmen in a taxi as he was leavinghis house in Pakistan. Molavi Abdul Malek was a well-known opponentof the regime involved in organizing the Balouchi community. He waskilled along with an associate, Jamshid Zahi, 25. A Pakistani womanpassing by was also wounded.


3/4/96 Karachi (Pakistan) Abdol-NasserJamshid-Zahi Balouch Gunned down on a Karachi street along withMolavi Abdul Malek, a well-known opponent of the regime involved inorganizing the Balouchi community.


3/7/96 Baghdad (Iraq) Hamed Rahmani PMOI The Mujahdin blamedthe Iranian government for the murder in Baghdad of Hamed Rahmani,killed while driving to his office in central Baghdad in the evening.They said it was the sixth assassination of a Mujahedin member inBaghdad since 5/95.



Alleged assassinations of Iranian Kurds

in Iraqi Kurdistan, 1989-1996

(Source: KDPI)


Total Alleged deaths: 36


9/9/89 Northern Iraq Sadigh Kamangar Killed in September1989 in Northern Iraq.

6/6/92 Northern Iraq Shapour Firuzi Ex KDPI Killed near theIranian border

7/7/92 Suleimanieh, Iraq Mansour Moghadam KDPI Killed in July1992 near Suleimanieh.

11/3/93 Northern Iraq Sadiq Rashidi et al KDPI Seven IranianKurds killed in Iraqi Kurdistan in attacks in Nov. and Dec. 1993,allegedly by Iranian government agents.

1/4/94 Northern Iraq Mohammad Bokani, aka Khala Hama KDPI,Komalah, unaffiliated A total of 18 Iranian Kurds were killed inattacks in Iraqi Kurdistan in 1994, allegedly by Iranian governmentagents

4/1/95 Iraqi Kurdistan Suleiman Chikerda et al KDPI, Komalah,unaffiliated A total of 6 Iranian Kurds were killed in attacks inIraqi Kurdistan in 1995, allegedly by Iranian government agents

1/2/96 Suleimaniah, Iraq Rahman Shabani Refugees Two refugees,Rahman Shabani and Ali Abdullah, were shot by gunmen allegedlyworking on behalf of Tehran


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